B2: Mainstreaming Climate Information

Chair| Youcef Ait-Chellouch, Moderator| Arame Tall

  • Loss of climate predictability > raise of climate service
  • What kind of end-users are going to consume climate service?

A: Building the channels and approaches to develop integrated community-based climate services: An exchange demonstration in Mbeere, Kenya- EstonNjuki, Christain Aid

  • Partnership to develop community based climate service
  • Case studies in Kenya and Senegal
  • Mbeere> short and long rain, 50 percent of population is poor
  • SALI program > strengthening agricultural innovations by creation of channels for farmer groups in drought/prone areas
  • Access to climate info >different regional, national and technical forums and forecast dissemination
  • Innovation > Seasonal forecast SMS, monthly forecast SMS, 7 day forecast SMS by Kenya Meteorological Service
  • Created demand by farmers
  • Outcome > yield improvement up to 15 percent
  • Creating district level meetings


B: Enhancing Climate Change Information Access to Decision Makers at Local Level Through StorytellingYassin Mkwizu, University of Dar es Salaam

  • How can access for the people on the ground be ensured?
  • Research on sub-national district due to decentralization in Tanzania and local level
  • Gap > no adequate information available in regard to sharing and access
  • Information access > physical, social, intellectual
  • Focus on information and knowledge management
  • Storytelling according to the way human brains work
  • Result > story telling was preferred, especially for female

C: Bridging the Gap between Providers and End-Users of Climate Services in Africa – Mission Possible. Lessons Learnt from CCAFS & Partners’ Proven Successful Strategies to Bridge the gap between climate scientists and farmer communities in Africa, 2010-13Arame Tall, CCFAS

  • Good practices > network building between different actors, communicating probabilities through games, downscaled locally knowledge > use of PDF, seemless forecast, from dissemination to two way communication e.g. SMS in local language
  • Gaps > how to enable adaptation to the envelope of uncertainty across time scales, better assessing end user needs



D: Climate communication to inform community adaptation decision making Fiona Percy, CARE

  • Adaptation Learning Program in Africa
  • End-users> pastoralists, farmers, rural communities which are vulnerable
  • Climate information in order to make more informed, anticipatory and flexible decisions, enable risk management, develop adapted and diversified livelihood option

Value can be realized through:

  • Translation matters
  • Listening and responding to local needs
  • Recognizing knowledge and capacity of end users
  • Mobile communication for rainfall recording
  • Participatory Scenario Planning based on multi stakeholder platform where forecasts are shared and combined
  • Feedback loops matter
  • Dissemination channels > use of existing ones
  • Capacity of meteorological services
  • More research

E: Climate change gap in Kenya’s education systemsJulius Huho, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga U. of Science and Technology

  • Main environmental threats are droughts and floods
  • Agri-based economy in Kenya
  • Government subsidized secondary education > high literacy level
  • Climate change is taught mainly in primary schools / science and social studies
  • In secondary school > geography > only voluntary and declining no of students
  • Majority of students were of climate changes but mainly in regard to rainfall and not temperature etc
  • Poor knowledge of global climate change response and a lot didn’t know about the link between GHG and global warming

F: Making long term decisions in a climate of uncertainty> what do we need from climate science?-   Nicola Ranger, DfID

  • Deep uncertainty  in climate predictions | incomplete infos, conflicting models
  • Need to shift to long term thinking
  • New risk management paradigm | more robust and flexible decisions are needed
  • Adaptation > reducing vulnerability, capacity building, avoiding shocks
  • Decision making need to become more future/proofing
  • Example from London > Thames Estuary 2100 Plan > calculating sea level rise in barrier planning
  • Implications > explore the range of plausible future risk, model and narrative scenarios, monitoring is central
  • Decision first instead of science first
  • Understanding historic climate and trends

G: Capacity Building Strategy for Mainstreaming Climate Services into Policy Formulation and Decision MakingShakirudeen       Odunuga, University of Lagos

  • Introduction of climate change adaptation into the curricula at University Lagos
  • Review of existing courses > no multidisciplinary integration
  • Establishment of cc adaptation course for all students

Science/policy interface for climate change adaptation contribution of “communities of practice” COP theory, University of Venezia

  • Interaction model combines science and policy push # pull
  • Constraints > structural, functional, social
  • Inconsistent relation and lack of social context
  • COP / joint enterprises, mutual engagement of the community and shared practice

H: Indigenous Knowledge Use in Seasonal Climate Forecasting in Tanzania: The Case of Central Semi-arid TanzaniaEmmanuel Frank Elia, University of DaresSalaam

  • Erratic rainfall in E/African countries
  • Problem > ignorance of the seasonal climate forecast information > no benefit from the use of it
  • Farmers used local indicators e.g. astronomic, birds, insects, wind direction, traditional stones, to forecast weather
  • Lack of documentation
  • Youths unwillingness to learn the indigenous knowledge
  • Need to integrate findings in decision making


I: Toward Co-production of Climate Knowledge for Adaptation in East AfricaMeaghan Daly, U. Colorado

  • Focus on Northern Tanzania
  • Indigenous knowledge and traditional planning to cope with climate change
  • Recognition of multiple forms of knowledge
  • Challenges to coproduction > different knowledge criteria of various actors and power relations
  • Framework > usable knowledge with the 3 criteria of legitimacy, salience, credibility
  • Modified actor network theory > mapping stakeholders, knowledge flows, power relations
  • Choose of dynamic knowledge which changes over time

J: Integration of indigenous knowledge with modern ICTs in coping with effects of climate change and variability on agricultureNaanyu Manei, University of Nairobi

  • Indigenous knowledge | IK as basis component, but were altered and disrupted during the colonial period, lack of research
  • Endangered with extinction
  • Only oral documentation
  • Research among farmers in Kajido county, Kenya
  • Perceived cause of CC mostly deforestation
  • Radio is very common for information
  • IK not in competition rather as addition to scientific knowledge

K: Challenges for bridging the divide between scientific and traditional knowledge systems of climate prediction in the Taita Hills, KenyaTino Johansson, International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology

  • Three Focus group discussions with focus on elderly people
  • Dimensions of projects are Disaster Risk Reduction, food security and ecosystem services > goal integrated adaptation strategy
  • Advantage of traditional forecast are timeless, no experts needed, more accurate information’s
  • Some of the indicators are not existing anymore
  • No incorporation of traditional knowledge into policy documents
  • Lack of intergenerational knowledge transfer
  • Dominance of scientific > western culture


L: Understanding Information Communication Strategies among Farmers for Effective Utilization of Climate Research and Forecast in the Niger-Delta, NigeriaOnwuemele Andrew, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research

  • Low use of ICT
  • Aim of study > understanding farmers information communication strategies
  • Analytical framework > Shannon Weaver Model > Source and Receiver with message code and expected feedback
  • Sources of information’s mainly through traditional rulers and community leaders, personal experience, friends
  • Lack of feedback mechanisms


Discussion and Session Conclusions: Summary of Knowledge, Gaps and Recommendations

  • Farmers are not interested in CC | what happens when the forecasts go wrong?
  • Why so few famers are interested in forecasts? / scientific research does not have too much legitimacy and credibility / lack of trust
  • IK is in transition because CC changes the indicators
  • Trust is essential but problematic in short term projects
  • Shift from communication to ownership
  • Problematic notion of term like end user
  • Communication between high level university researcher and local level on different scales
  • Lack of electricity > how to access forecasts?
  • Need to communicate the quality of knowledge and its possible shortcomings
  • Line between anthropogenic and climate change practices?
  • 96 percent of agriculture in Africa is rain fed


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