Category: Featured

Dr. Kijazi concludes ACC2013 at AICC.

4  days    africa   climate  conference  at  last ended by the  concluding  remarks   from   Director General of  Tanzania Meteorological   Agency(TMA)   Dr.  Agness  Kijazi   at  Arusha  International  Conference  Centre.


The winner Dr. Seyni

The winner Dr. Seyni





Dr. Arame Tall, ACC2013 Scientific Steering Committee co-chair, CCAFS, talking about climate change at ACC 2013

The poster sessions ACC2013.

The poster sessions are an important method of scientific communication, as they can efficiently convey messages to a large audience while offering the possibility for in depth explanations and discussions that are not possible during oral sessions. Acc2013     pictures  for  presenters




B2: Mainstreaming Climate Information

Chair| Youcef Ait-Chellouch, Moderator| Arame Tall

  • Loss of climate predictability > raise of climate service
  • What kind of end-users are going to consume climate service?

A: Building the channels and approaches to develop integrated community-based climate services: An exchange demonstration in Mbeere, Kenya- EstonNjuki, Christain Aid

  • Partnership to develop community based climate service
  • Case studies in Kenya and Senegal
  • Mbeere> short and long rain, 50 percent of population is poor
  • SALI program > strengthening agricultural innovations by creation of channels for farmer groups in drought/prone areas
  • Access to climate info >different regional, national and technical forums and forecast dissemination
  • Innovation > Seasonal forecast SMS, monthly forecast SMS, 7 day forecast SMS by Kenya Meteorological Service
  • Created demand by farmers
  • Outcome > yield improvement up to 15 percent
  • Creating district level meetings


B: Enhancing Climate Change Information Access to Decision Makers at Local Level Through StorytellingYassin Mkwizu, University of Dar es Salaam

  • How can access for the people on the ground be ensured?
  • Research on sub-national district due to decentralization in Tanzania and local level
  • Gap > no adequate information available in regard to sharing and access
  • Information access > physical, social, intellectual
  • Focus on information and knowledge management
  • Storytelling according to the way human brains work
  • Result > story telling was preferred, especially for female

C: Bridging the Gap between Providers and End-Users of Climate Services in Africa – Mission Possible. Lessons Learnt from CCAFS & Partners’ Proven Successful Strategies to Bridge the gap between climate scientists and farmer communities in Africa, 2010-13Arame Tall, CCFAS

  • Good practices > network building between different actors, communicating probabilities through games, downscaled locally knowledge > use of PDF, seemless forecast, from dissemination to two way communication e.g. SMS in local language
  • Gaps > how to enable adaptation to the envelope of uncertainty across time scales, better assessing end user needs



D: Climate communication to inform community adaptation decision making Fiona Percy, CARE

  • Adaptation Learning Program in Africa
  • End-users> pastoralists, farmers, rural communities which are vulnerable
  • Climate information in order to make more informed, anticipatory and flexible decisions, enable risk management, develop adapted and diversified livelihood option

Value can be realized through:

  • Translation matters
  • Listening and responding to local needs
  • Recognizing knowledge and capacity of end users
  • Mobile communication for rainfall recording
  • Participatory Scenario Planning based on multi stakeholder platform where forecasts are shared and combined
  • Feedback loops matter
  • Dissemination channels > use of existing ones
  • Capacity of meteorological services
  • More research

E: Climate change gap in Kenya’s education systemsJulius Huho, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga U. of Science and Technology

  • Main environmental threats are droughts and floods
  • Agri-based economy in Kenya
  • Government subsidized secondary education > high literacy level
  • Climate change is taught mainly in primary schools / science and social studies
  • In secondary school > geography > only voluntary and declining no of students
  • Majority of students were of climate changes but mainly in regard to rainfall and not temperature etc
  • Poor knowledge of global climate change response and a lot didn’t know about the link between GHG and global warming

F: Making long term decisions in a climate of uncertainty> what do we need from climate science?-   Nicola Ranger, DfID

  • Deep uncertainty  in climate predictions | incomplete infos, conflicting models
  • Need to shift to long term thinking
  • New risk management paradigm | more robust and flexible decisions are needed
  • Adaptation > reducing vulnerability, capacity building, avoiding shocks
  • Decision making need to become more future/proofing
  • Example from London > Thames Estuary 2100 Plan > calculating sea level rise in barrier planning
  • Implications > explore the range of plausible future risk, model and narrative scenarios, monitoring is central
  • Decision first instead of science first
  • Understanding historic climate and trends

G: Capacity Building Strategy for Mainstreaming Climate Services into Policy Formulation and Decision MakingShakirudeen       Odunuga, University of Lagos

  • Introduction of climate change adaptation into the curricula at University Lagos
  • Review of existing courses > no multidisciplinary integration
  • Establishment of cc adaptation course for all students

Science/policy interface for climate change adaptation contribution of “communities of practice” COP theory, University of Venezia

  • Interaction model combines science and policy push # pull
  • Constraints > structural, functional, social
  • Inconsistent relation and lack of social context
  • COP / joint enterprises, mutual engagement of the community and shared practice

H: Indigenous Knowledge Use in Seasonal Climate Forecasting in Tanzania: The Case of Central Semi-arid TanzaniaEmmanuel Frank Elia, University of DaresSalaam

  • Erratic rainfall in E/African countries
  • Problem > ignorance of the seasonal climate forecast information > no benefit from the use of it
  • Farmers used local indicators e.g. astronomic, birds, insects, wind direction, traditional stones, to forecast weather
  • Lack of documentation
  • Youths unwillingness to learn the indigenous knowledge
  • Need to integrate findings in decision making


I: Toward Co-production of Climate Knowledge for Adaptation in East AfricaMeaghan Daly, U. Colorado

  • Focus on Northern Tanzania
  • Indigenous knowledge and traditional planning to cope with climate change
  • Recognition of multiple forms of knowledge
  • Challenges to coproduction > different knowledge criteria of various actors and power relations
  • Framework > usable knowledge with the 3 criteria of legitimacy, salience, credibility
  • Modified actor network theory > mapping stakeholders, knowledge flows, power relations
  • Choose of dynamic knowledge which changes over time

J: Integration of indigenous knowledge with modern ICTs in coping with effects of climate change and variability on agricultureNaanyu Manei, University of Nairobi

  • Indigenous knowledge | IK as basis component, but were altered and disrupted during the colonial period, lack of research
  • Endangered with extinction
  • Only oral documentation
  • Research among farmers in Kajido county, Kenya
  • Perceived cause of CC mostly deforestation
  • Radio is very common for information
  • IK not in competition rather as addition to scientific knowledge

K: Challenges for bridging the divide between scientific and traditional knowledge systems of climate prediction in the Taita Hills, KenyaTino Johansson, International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology

  • Three Focus group discussions with focus on elderly people
  • Dimensions of projects are Disaster Risk Reduction, food security and ecosystem services > goal integrated adaptation strategy
  • Advantage of traditional forecast are timeless, no experts needed, more accurate information’s
  • Some of the indicators are not existing anymore
  • No incorporation of traditional knowledge into policy documents
  • Lack of intergenerational knowledge transfer
  • Dominance of scientific > western culture


L: Understanding Information Communication Strategies among Farmers for Effective Utilization of Climate Research and Forecast in the Niger-Delta, NigeriaOnwuemele Andrew, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research

  • Low use of ICT
  • Aim of study > understanding farmers information communication strategies
  • Analytical framework > Shannon Weaver Model > Source and Receiver with message code and expected feedback
  • Sources of information’s mainly through traditional rulers and community leaders, personal experience, friends
  • Lack of feedback mechanisms


Discussion and Session Conclusions: Summary of Knowledge, Gaps and Recommendations

  • Farmers are not interested in CC | what happens when the forecasts go wrong?
  • Why so few famers are interested in forecasts? / scientific research does not have too much legitimacy and credibility / lack of trust
  • IK is in transition because CC changes the indicators
  • Trust is essential but problematic in short term projects
  • Shift from communication to ownership
  • Problematic notion of term like end user
  • Communication between high level university researcher and local level on different scales
  • Lack of electricity > how to access forecasts?
  • Need to communicate the quality of knowledge and its possible shortcomings
  • Line between anthropogenic and climate change practices?
  • 96 percent of agriculture in Africa is rain fed


Parallel session B1: Modelling and Predicting Climate Impacts

IMG_4647The session aimed at coming up with concrete proposals on modelling and predicting climate impacts. The session was held in  Mbayuwayu room chaired by Jim Hansen and it was guided by the following questions:

What is the state of knowledge?

What are the user’s needs?

What Gap is in the knowledge?

The Chair posed the following questions:

Are impact studies user driven?

How do they relate to decision making?

How well do they reflect what users require in climate science?

Do they build in climate science or are they constrained by gaps in climate information?

Several papers were presented in the session,  including those on modelling and prediction on rainfall projection (Gianini Alssandra IRI). Others were on the link  between agriculture and climate change in relation to prediction of agricultural crop yields and adaptation strategies of farmers (Nathalie Philippon- the University of Bourgogne).

Andy Morse of the University of Liverpool presented a proposal on epiclimatology. Epiclimatology was presented as a new discipline intending to establish the link between climate and health. The presenter noted that there are a number of studies on the relation between climate and water (hydrometeorology), or agriculture and climate (agrometereology) but none on climate and health.  Jacues-Andre Ndione, presenting a paper on climate change and rift valley fever,  showed that there is a link between climate and diseases. Similar presentation was done by Adrian Tompkins, ICTP, who looked into  the relation between climate and malaria.


The other growing area on climate change is on economics in which one of the papers was on climate change and electricity consumption. A model to establish the
link between the two variables was applied in different African countries. It was found out that in some of these countries, the climate change cause an increased consumption of electricity while in others it is either urbanization or an increase in income that causes changes in electricity consumption.

Another link between climate change and  economy was presented in a paper which examined impact of climate change on road infrastructure. A model to test the two variables was applied to different types of roads to see what impact they had on climate change.

In the end, it was noted that we can’t attribute everything to climate change.  While climate change still remains the main driver, other factors such as mismanagement may need to be taken into account . As far as the needs of the end users are concerned,  the lack of data was mentioned as one of the challenges inhibiting agriculture extension officers to use the tools provided.

Some other issues which were raised included: the need to use validated models over non-validated models; the need for ministries to sit together ; the need to use statistical models over regional models; and the need to improve climate services in agriculture and hydrology. It was also proposed that there should be the increased use of GIS instead of weather stations, and that the stakeholders should be cautious before recommending  any adaptation projects  because they cost a lot .